Violence against women: An Exploration of the Physical and Mental Health Trends -BY JYOTIKA SHARMA

ABSTRACT

Violence against women and children, with costs at different levels of society, is a major public health issue. While violence is a danger to every one, since they often have fewer rights or lack sufficient means of protection, women and children are especially vulnerable to victimization. Some forms of violence are considered socially or legally permissible in some cultures, thereby further adding to the danger faced by women and children. Violence against women is a serious health and social problem for women worldwide.

This article explores the different causes behind violence against women with Certain cases and their effects on the mental health and well-being of women.

This paper explores with some instances the different causes behind violence against women and its impact on the mental and physical health and well-being of women. The paper indicates that recognizing violence against women as a problem of mental health is a significant first move that needs concerted. In this article we will further discuss the physical and mental health consequences, we will also discuss what are the possible solutions to reduce violence against women.

Keywords – Mental health; Violence against women; Women; Human rights; Abuse; victim; Physical health.

SCOPE:

The scope of this article mainly focuses on the consequences of violence against women on mental and physical wellbeing. The attitude of ignorance and neglect, mostly due to the widespread recognition of male supremacy against women, since violent violence against women are not regarded by women themselves as violent by reason of their social and religious values. It was only recently that the issue of women’s violence was turned into a public concern from a private issue. , The current Article seeks to investigate the key causes and consequences of growing violence against women. The article further suggests some policy recommendations, approaches, strategies that can be adopted to end violence against woman.

INTRODUCTION

The word violence against women covers a mess of life-long abuses aimed at women and women. The United Nations Resolution[1] on the Abolition of Violence against Women (defines violence against women as any act of gender-based violence that ends up or is likely to result in physical, sexual or psychological harm or harm to women, as well as threats of such acts, coercion or discretionary deprivation of liberty, whether or not they take place in public or on camera.”

The term “gender violence” has been referred to as “acts or threats of acts that punish women or cause them physically, sexually or psychologically and which affect women because they are women or because they affect women disproportionately.”[2]  All these are the implications of gender inequality and abuse against women. This inequality can be characterised as the sexism of responsibilities and rights as well as access and management of resources embedded in the social and cultural definition of men as superior to women’s rights.

The term includes different types of abuse, including psychological and mental harm. In most situations, intimate partners who induce women not only to endure their pain quietly but are also socialised to embrace, accommodate and rationalise it are the perpetrators of violence against women. Throughout their life cycle, during infancy, puberty and/or adolescence, or during maturity or older age violence toward women is endemic (over and beyond class, race, age, gender and geographical boundaries).and therefore they suffer psychological and mental harassment.

The new examination on ‘National and Regional Estimates of Violence against Women’ from the World Health Organisation indicates that each intimate companion violence and non-companion sexual violence are prevalent and have significant impacts on the physical, sexual and reproductive and mental health of women.

CAUSES

A critical type of discrimination in the absence of women’s empowerment. Violence toward women and girls (VAW), though there are many challenges to emancipation, is both a cause and a result of gender inequality.

Demand and dissatisfaction with the endowment, having battled with the companion, or in the event that she won’t engage in sexual relations with him, dismissing youngsters, they leave their home without telling the life partner, not cooking appropriately or on schedule, enjoying an extra-conjugal undertaking, and not taking care of the in-laws, etc, are the most frequent reasons for women stalking and battering.[3]  In certain circumstances, infertility in women often leads to violence and attack by members of the family.

Domestic violence against women in rural areas is a significant factor in the lust for dowry, the choice for a male baby and the alcoholic problem, of the spouse. The convergence of these three causes can be seen in a poor woman who visited the Central Institute of Psychiatry (CIP) at Ranchi in Case 1, discussed below.

CASE-

This poor female patient, 22 years of age, accompanied her dad with a two-year history of staying discouraged, indifferent, having helpless contact with others and not dealing with her two-year-old female kid after her husband’s severe head injury with a rod. The patient claimed that her drunken husband and in-laws faced constant ridicule and attack for giving less dowry soon after the union. This savagery heightened even following one year of marriage when she gave birth to a female baby. On a meaningless day, her husband struck a rod on her head and threatened to throttle her. Somehow, she survived and she was taken to the hospital with the help of some neighbours. She continued to act strangely after the head injury and was taken to the Central Institute of Psychiatry (CIP) for her treatment.

PHYSICAL HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN

  1. Homicide

Numerous sources say that most women who die from homicide are mostly murdered by their husband or ex-spouse  An study of 249 court documents in Zimbabwe found that the intimate partner of the deceased was responsible for 59 per cent of the killings of women. The ritual can be deadly for a woman who has parents who can’t fulfil gift or cash criteria in societies where a dowry is given. Forced suicide, death by tragedy or murder may result in violence that starts with threats.

  1. Serious injuries

A physical and sexual harassment disability sustained by women can be exceptionally serious. Many aggressive cases result in damage, cutbacks and injuries to permanent diseases. A large share of them requires healthcare. For eg, 18% of all urban married people had to seek medical treatment in Papua New Guinea after domestic violence.

  1. During childbirth, incidents

The latest evidence has identified abuse as a danger to the health of both mothers and their unborn foetus during pregnancy. Research has shown elevated levels of a number of conditions in this region.

  1. Injuries against infants

Children can also be victims of violence in abusive communities. Many, when attempting to protect their families, children are wounded.

  1. Unwanted and conception at an early stage

Violence against women can lead, either by abuse or by disrupting the willingness of a woman to discuss contraception use to unintended pregnancy. For instance, for fear of being beaten or discarded, some women may be fearful of increasing The problem with their intimate partners over contraception use. Teenagers who experience trauma or have been maltreated as youth are far more uncertain than people who have not been injured to grow self-esteem and a position. They must avoid each other and engage in unnecessary exercises like an early, unprotected sexual revolution. A growing number of studies have found that the risk of accidental pregnancy is even higher after puberty for young women who are attacked directly in the early phases.

This greater risk of unwanted pregnancy brings with it many other issues. It is well known, for example, that childbearing is associated with adverse health effects during early or middle puberty for both the mother and child before girls are biologically and mentally mature. Infants at gestational age may be premature, low in birth weight, or short. When an accidental pregnancy occurs, many women attempt to fix their dilemma by abortion. In countries where abortion is unlawful, expensive or difficult to procure, women may resort to illegal abortions, at times with dangerous consequences.

  1. STDs from HIV/AIDS,

As with unintended conception, they are vulnerable to the production of sexually transmitted infections because women are unable to address safety (STDs). For ladies with STDs, the probability of inconveniences during pregnancy, including sepsis, unintended fetus removal and unexpected labour, is higher. A few STDs improve a lady’s weakness to the HIV infection, as well. Forceful rape can likewise build their chances, as the resulting tears in delicate vaginal tissue allow the virus to enter the bloodstream quicker. For HIV/AIDS, the results are normally fatal for the mother, and possibly also for her children.

  1. Vulnerability of illnesses

Compared with non-abused women, women who have endured a form of violence are bound to encounter an assortment of genuine medical conditions.

It was hypothesised that due to stress resulting from the violence, the heightened susceptibility of battered women to infection could be attributed in part to diminished resistance. Self-neglect and heightened risk-taking, in comparison, we’re also concerned. It has been found, for example, that battered ladies are bound to smoke than ladies without a background marked by savagery.

MENTAL HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN

  1. Suicide

The mental and physical pressure will result in suicide for women who are battered or sexually abused. Such deaths are dramatic evidence of the lack of opportunities for women to leave abusive marriages.

Analysis in the United States has found that battered women are five times more likely to commit suicide than women who do not live with abusive men.

  1. Difficulties in mental wellbeing

Evidence shows that because of brutality, battered women experience tremendous psychological trauma. Others are amazingly anxious or pushed, while some show indications of the post-awful pressure problem. They might be exorbitantly depleted, however incapable of rest; may have eating issues or bad dreams; resort to liquor and meds to numb their agony, or become estranged and withdrawn. It may make equivalent mental mischief assault and youth rape. One episode of sexual maltreatment can be adequate to produce enduring negative impacts,[4] especially if the kid casualty doesn’t hence get Appropriate fortification. Child abuse frequently lasts for several years, including violence against women in the home, and its disabling repercussions will spill on into adult life. For example, lowering the self-esteem of women who have been victimised in childhood will lead to less effort being taken to prevent circumstances in which their health or welfare is threatened

  1. The effect on children of witnessing violence

The examination has discovered that youngsters who experience aggressive behaviour at home additionally show a large number of the very impacts as kids that have been deceived themselves brutally or explicitly. Girls who experience the abusive treatment of their mother by their father or step-father are often more likely to hold onto violence as a characteristic piece of marriage than young ladies from peaceful families. On the other hand, boys who have experienced the same violence are more likely to be violent as adults against their partners.

The long-term consequences of violence against women on mental health can include:

  • Post-Traumatic Disorder of Stress (PTSD)- This might be because of injury or an upsetting or startling experience, for example, lewd behaviour or actual maltreatment. You may be effortlessly terrified, feel apprehensive or almost there, inconvenience resting, or have rough upheavals. You may even experience challenges reviewing subtleties or have unfavourable sentiments about yourself or others. Address a psychological wellness specialist if you suspect you have PTSD.
  • Depression- Depression is an extreme condition, so to feel better, you should get treatment. Speak to a mental health specialist if you are feeling stressed.
  • Anxiety- This can be general vulnerability about it all, or it tends to be an unexpected attack of extraordinary panic. After some time, nervousness will get more grounded and play with the regular daily existence. You can get help from emotional wellness proficient if you are experiencing anxiety.

CASE 2

This is a 22-year-old woman’s case. For the last 3 years, she and her mother have had a history of smoking and drinking Corex syrup. Her dad and oldest sibling kicked died because of indications of liquor habit. She has two different kin, one sibling and one niece.[5] She was the centre offspring of her three siblings. The mother and sister of the patient all have a comparable convention of taking and smoking Corex. Mother needs to work because the household does not have an earning member, and she spends a big share of her cash on sourcing substances. They used to battle with one another because of the money problem since everybody needs Corex to be procured. She was sometimes scolded, and even members of her relatives harassed her. The patient was not even supplied with her basic needs such as food and clothes, at times. She was not given cash aside from her fundamental requirements, expecting that she would spend it on purchasing drugs. In order to satisfy her requests, she used to torture and threaten relatives with self-destruction. Over the long haul, she created sexual associations with a portion of her male mates and was cheated. In the end, she began to feel low and began to take drugs that developed over time, including her mother and sister.

This case illustrates that in the household, disturbing family history and alcohol abuse have a detrimental effect on mental health, frequently contributing to opioid addiction and mental illness. Violence is frequently used in certain conditions and cases and emerges out of a desire for dominance and influence over one another. In order to gain and retain power over other family members or partners, an abuser frequently uses multiple harassment techniques e.g., physical, verbal, emotional, sexual or financial). The case illustrates that abusive personalities frequently arise to varying degrees from a mixture of many variables which contribute to feelings of poor self-esteem or feelings of abandonment.

INTERVENTION AND APPROACHES TO MINIMISE IMPACT OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN ON MENTAL HEALTH

It is critical that MH experts, patients and other partners take pro-active steps to reduce the mental health impact of violence against women (World Health Organization, 2013d). Violence against women is an unbelievably nuanced wonder, however, any answer for diminishing VAW’s MH suggestions must look to determine the principal cultural qualities and social frameworks that continue it. To be fruitful, the arrangement should draw on a wide scope of skills and services,[6] with full potential community engagement at both governmental and non-governmental levels. Curative and protective methods for battling Violence against women may be in place. In order to help her recover her lost self-esteem, medical, legal, shelter house, recovery facilities and mainstreaming initiatives, curative action will explore providing social services to the abused woman such as therapy services.

Preventive action may deal with the development of an atmosphere free from violence. This calls for an interdisciplinary solution to avoid growing cases of violence, with a vast amount of money spent on it. Preventive interventions can require the preparation of mental health staff, professionals, clinicians and social workers to recognize and take the appropriate measures to support and assist children and women living in abusive households. The establishment of crisis lines, hotline programme, VAW event intake counselling centre and referral services would help aid in curbing Violence against women.

Other prevention steps may include the availability of emergency care to women in crisis, access to legal consultation prior to taking legal action against the perpetrators; the establishment of a short remain at home for ladies who can’t remain in the home affected by abuse. These services and programmes would aim to close the void that women face where they stay quiet because they are not aware of the resources available to assist them with Violence against women. Women who are refused opportunities find it impossible to survive on their own in much of the male-dominated society, without the partner’s help and they are left with no decision except to bear the sufferings. At long last, once she is able to earn for herself and her son, no attempt to heal a battered woman can be complete.

The development of a female helpline might be one such activity to give dire alleviation and assets to ladies out of luck and needing insurance and wellbeing. It won’t just help ladies and construct an inviting climate for ladies, however, will likewise go about as a hub for activism for women’s rights.

  1. Acting as a hub for crisis intervention for women victims of violence;
  2. Providing support resources to women victims of distressing violence to combat emotions of hopelessness and depression;
  • Providing programmes in the short and long term;
  1. The victim’s rescue and rehabilitation; and
  2. To support the issue of violence based on gender.

EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES TO END VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMAN

We have to avoid violence against women and defend and bring justice to survivors in order to deter An overall, interconnected approach that includes: preventing aggression, Reinforcement of legislative and policy structures and enhancement of response services About survivors. It is a priority to help numerous initiatives and projects consistent with the partnership partners’ goals for finishing Violence against women.

A move from viewing women as victims (and other individuals subject to gender-based violence) to seeing them as survivors, actors and advocates of change with a clear emphasis on the education of women and girls and the organisation.

  • Efforts to expand political engagement and influence of women in contexts Conflicts, stability and other humanitarian problems. Women have access to the rights to Participate in political bodies at all levels of society, and in peace processes, on an equal basis with men. The parliamentary participation of women is very limited in many nations, and women are also excluded from formal peace talks. The prospect of pursuing economic prosperity, stability and human security has evasive implications.

  • Efforts to increase women’s economic equality and boost women’s economic empowerment. The strength of negotiation and the desire to escape unhealthy relationships. This covers Strengthening women’s prospects for entrepreneurship and jobs, improving women’s access to land and property rights, fostering equal opportunities for women Sharing and promoting the sharing of voluntary care work between women and men and Entry to quality education in a universal way. While such efforts can lead to increased short-term violence against women due to gender ideals that connect masculinity to the role of provider, increasing the economic empowerment of women is also crucial for violence against women prevention in the longer term. These risks can be minimised by female economic development interventions that often challenge gender roles and hit couples and the population.

  • Sexual and reproductive wellbeing and rights enhancing initiatives are critical for Provided the close relationship between the two, the avoidance of Vaw. Efforts of this nature Promoting and defending the right of women to monitor and choose openly on topics relating to their sexuality, including sexual and reproductive wellbeing, family planning choices and prevention of HIV/AIDS.

  • A vital aspect of the prevention of violence is promoting gender equality- The relationship between violence and sexuality is complicated. Nevertheless, research shows that gender differences raise the likelihood of violence against women by men and hinder the willingness of those impacted to pursue protection. There are several levels of violence against women; intimate partner violence, the most prevalent form, is the subject of this briefing. While more study is needed, data suggests that questioning assumptions that offer men control over women, education, community and media efforts will encourage gender equality and deter violence against women.

  • In order to deter violence against women, school programmes are well put- Before they become firmly entrenched in children and youth, school-based interventions should discuss gender roles and behaviours. These programmes discuss social roles for adolescents and young adults, dating harassment and sexual assault. For the Safe Dates initiative in the United States of America and the Youth Friendship Project in Canada, good outcomes were registered.

  • Interventions in the media will shift gender norms and support the interests of women. In order to shift attitudes towards gender roles, public awareness campaigns and other initiatives distributed through television, radio, newspapers and other mass media may be successful. Many that strive to learn their target audience and communicate with their members to create content are the most effective. However, we do not yet know whether they really minimize abuse.

  • Males and females must be active in programmes- There is some evidence that particularly in communities with traditional gender norms, microfinance schemes empowering women (without interacting with men) can potentially create discord and tension between partners. In order to investigate how such potentially negative consequences might be resolved, more study is needed.

 

RECOMMENDATION FOR A POLICY

Ignoring violence as a factor in the mental health and well-being of women not only leads to misdiagnosis and ineffective care but also lacks the full scope of violence’s personal and social repercussions. In recent years, particularly after the rape and murder a few years back on 16 December of a 23-year-old female student in Delhi, VAW has emerged as a significant public issue that has prompted mass assembly and public irateness and pain all through India. This lead to extensive tension on the public authority to make an effective move and guidelines.  Dr Manmohan Singh, the Prime Minister of India, pledged to go in a helpful direction to avoid Violence against women and setting up a commission headed by Justice J.S. Verma, with Justice Leila Seth and Gopal Subramaniam as individuals, to change the Criminal Law. On 23 January 2013, the committee released its report. It is good news that the Sexual Harassment at Work (Prevention, Ban and Redressal) Act, 2013,[7] was passed on 22 April 2013 by the government. However, amid these promises, the constitution and reporting of committees, and the introduction of new laws, Violence against women is rampant. In such a case it is necessary to reach all players that may make a real difference, for example, socialized society, the scholarly community, researchers, feeling pioneers, and so forth and specialist organizations, for example, therapists, psychological well-being experts and advisors, and so on.

The authors propose the following policy recommendation and action on the basis of a study of research and dialogue, which can help to avoid the mental health effects of violence against women (World Health Organization, 2013a, 2013b, 2013c, 2013d).

  • Recognizing domestic maltreatment as a huge emotional wellness emergency for the general population.
  • The preparation of providers of mental health services.
  • Integrating discrimination against women and social studies into modern physicians’ curricula for medical and nursing practice and training.
  • Implementation of domestic violence protocols such as diagnosis of intimate partner violence and services in addiction and drug abuse care.
  • Ensuring medical examinations by female doctors of sexual assault victims.
  • Establishing national mental health research and lobbying coalitions.
  • Conducting research, developing capacity for research and disseminating research results.
  • Use research to lobby for governance changes and fair resource distribution.

 

CONCLUSION

Abuse of women is a serious issue in terms of educational, civil rights and general mental health. Therefore, although the causes of violence against women are complicated, mental health policies, services, industry improvement and modifications to societal standards and cultural values need to solve the problem at all levels. It is hoped and accepted that mental health care providers will recognize the issue and offer remedies through adequate regular monitoring as well as a comprehensive evaluation of physical, social, and sexual violence. Recognizing that violence against women is mental and physical health and human problem, it is necessary to include violence against women in mental health programs and regulations. In addition, concerted and multi-sector responses are also needed, accompanied by a deep political dedication and commitment to ending violence against women.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. who.int/ – Gender and Women’s health, family and community health injuries and violence prevention noncommunicable disease and mental health world health organization, GENEVA

  1. https://www.domesticviolenceintervention.net/- Violence against women and mental health by Anant Kumara,n, S. Haque Nizamieb, Naveen Kumar Srivastava.

  1. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/199577.pdf- Violence Against Women: Synthesis of Research for Practitioners.

  1. https://www.semanticscholar.org/- Violence against Women: An Exploration of the Physical and Mental Health Trends among Immigrant and Refugee Women in Canada.

  1. /jech.bmj.com/content/jech/59/10/818.full.pdf- Violence against women Gunilla Krantz, Claudia Garcia-Moreno.

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